Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Ad Operations/Online Advertsing

1.       What are the various modes in online advertising?
Advertising using internet technology (WWW)
Display advertising –Static, RICHMEDIA & Mobile/PDA
Email advertising refers to advertising displayed in an email environment. It includes: Display, text, opt-in Search/Keyword marketing
2.       What is Display Advertising?
Display advertising refers to web advertising displaying the message using graphical information beyond text.  Includes image, rich media, floating, transitional, etc.
3.       Various creative formats?
Static Image – Gif, Jpeg
Rich – Flash – swf
RichMedia – Floating, Expandable, transitional, video, Motif

4.       What is an online campaign? Types of campaigns?
Online campaign is program
a.       Branding (awareness and message reinforcement)
b.      Direct response (ROI/acquisition-focused)

5.       Explain Frequency capping?

6.       What are the various types are targeting in online adverting?
Content – Various sections on the website pages
Geographical – Country, State, city, pin code, zip code etc
Time and Date
Computer System 
Internet Related
7.       What is RFI>RFP>IO (request for info/proposal, insertion order)? Explain

8.       Define Impression and click ?
Impression: one exposure to one user of a display or text ad
Click: One mouse click on the ad displayed.
9.       Types of cost structure and explain
CPM (cost per thousand impressions)
CPC/CPA (cost per click of acquisition/conversion)
Flat rate (special sponsorships such as fixed placements)
10.   Sony has booked an ad slot of 728x90 @ 4 CPM and 300x250 @ 2CPC on Yahoo. If in 1 month yahoo records 400,000 impressions on 728x90 and 2000 clicks, then what is the total cost? Who should pay?
Cost 728x90 = 400000x4/1000 = 1600
Cost 300x250 = 2000x2 = 4000
Total cost = 5600
11.   Explain the following terminologies used in online advertising industry
a)      BUYERS - Buyers are companies that buy ad space to advertise on it. Direct advertisers, Agencies and small business.
b)      Agency - Agencies are companies that handle the advertising process on behalf of the advertiser.
c)       Sellers - Sellers are companies that Sell ad space to advertise on it. Portals, Ad Networks, Content sites and Social networks
d)      Publisher - Web-publishers will monetize their web content via advertisements by creating ad spaces.
e)      Ad Network - An ad network acts as an agency for the publisher. Ad networks do not own the content, and they are responsible only for selling ad inventory on behalf of the publishers.
f)       Remnant - Selling ad space that a publisher cannot sell. They try to buy ad space at low prices and sell it at a higher price by packaging it through targeting capabilities and reach
g)      AD Exchange - Virtual marketplaces bring together online advertising buyers and sellers. Mainly focused on: remnant (unsold) inventory and inventory from publishers with no sales structure (long tail)
h)      Media Planning: Managing the process of researching media and planning the campaign.
i)        Media Buying: Managing the process of buying the media and price negotiation. Usually buyers use an RFP process to request proposals from the publishers that satisfy the goal of the buyer.
12.   Explain the complete steps involved in Buyer/Advertise side online ad serving process
Media Planning >Buying ad space on Publisher>Creative Generation > Trafficking >Reporting>Optimization >Invoicing
Media Planning: Managing the process of researching media and planning the campaign.
Media Buying: Managing the process of buying the media and price negotiation. Usually buyers use an RFP process to request proposals from the publishers that satisfy the goal of the buyer.
Creative Management: Managing the design process from the storyboards to the actual creative. Most of the time the design process is outsourced to creative agencies or freelancers.
Centralized Tracking: The buyer needs to have a centralized view of campaign data to see how the campaign is performing across the media they bought. One key requirement online (especially for direct marketers) is the ability to track the leads/sales and what activities led to it.
Media/Creative Optimization: The buyer needs to optimize the creatives to the right audience and make sure they stay “fresh” to avoid burnout effect (displaying the same creative over and over). They also need to make sure the media purchased delivers the expected results.
Accounting: The buyer needs to be able to pay the publisher based on the pricing models set forth in the purchase order and the delivered results.

13.   Explain the complete steps involved in Seller/Publisher side online ad serving process.
Proposal generation/IO >Inventory Management > Trafficking > Reporting>Optimization >Invoicing
Account management: Managing the relationship with the buyers
Proposal management: Managing RFPs and proposals during the sales process
Inventory management: Managing the ad inventory available for sale
Order/placement management: Managing the proper delivery of the orders/placements that are sold
Yield management: Maximizing ad revenue
Accounting: Managing invoices and payments
14.   Example of adserving platforms
Publisher side – DFP, 247 OAS, Yield manager, Pointroll, Eyeblaster, Yahoo Rightmedia
Agency/advertiser side – DFA, ATLAS, Accipiter, Yahoo AMP. OAMS, ADMODUS, Helious iQ
Exchange tools – Ad Exchange

1.        What is browser/proxy server caching? What is caching?

A:  Information, such as web pages, images, etc., are saved on a user’s computer or proxy server so that the information can be accessed more quickly. The information is accessed more quickly because the browser and/or proxy server need not re-contact the original source. This is a natural occurrence in the web and is responsible for making sure that web pages load as quickly as they do.
In an attempt to speed up user experience around the web, most browsers implement a technology called cache. This mechanism allows information, such as web pages, images, etc., to be saved on a user’s computer. Therefore, if the user calls for a previously requested web page, the browser will recall the information from the cache and not make another request from the site itself. Once the browser receives a DoubleClick ad image, it will store the image in the cache. Further calls for the ad image will be drawn from the cache – not from DoubleClick -- and an impression will not be counted. In order to defect the browser cache mechanism, Cache busting (aka Random Number Generation (RNG)) is implemented. 

What is Random Number Generation (RNG)?

A:  RNG is the process of inserting a random number in HTML tags to defeat browser/proxy caching. Random numbers change every time the tags are requested and sent. To be sure, cache busting can be achieved via the inclusion of any random string; however, this string is most commonly a number.
Browser caching can be defeated by dynamically creating unique tags for each ad image served. This ensures that when a user navigates from page to page the ad image is not delivered from the browser’s cache, but rather a new image is delivered from the DoubleClick servers for each request. To accomplish this unique tagging, a different random number is added to the image tags that reference the ad image. Typically, when a browser sees another image call with the same name, it pulls the ad from cache. To defeat this, an ord= attribute is added to the HTML tag, and when implemented correctly, prevents the images from being pulled from the cache. Tags with different “ord=” values prevent this caching problem because the different value forces the browser to retrieve a new banner from the ad server. If not implemented correctly, though, browser caching will not be defeated.

1.       What will happen if I do not use RNG to defeat caching?

A:  Web pages, images, etc. will be served from the user’s computer or proxy server rather than from DoubleClick’s servers. This will result in the undercounting of impressions and will cause counting discrepancies. This is an issue that can negatively affect both the Advertiser/Client and the Publisher website.
18.  Conversion tracking and how do you track the same?
What happens after a viewer sees a banner and doesn’t click ? Are they coming back? Converting?
Process of tracking the information beyond click and impression like post click and post impression. This will be tracked on the landing page. We need to use 1x1 pixel calls on the each page of the landing URL (Advertiser website) where you want to track the conversion activities.
When a browser hits a page on the advertiser’s site that contains a conversion/spotlight tag, the browser initiates an “HTTP get request” for a 1x1 pixel to the ad serving tool. In the process of making this request to DoubleClick, a user’s browser passes back information in the tag including IP address, operating system, browser type, cookie ID and the URL of the tag itself.

19.  Postclick/post impression
post-click activity :An action performed by a user in a web page that contains Spotlight tags, where the visit is a result of having clicked on an ad.
post-impression activity
An action performed by a user in an advertiser’s web page that contains Spotlight tags, after having seen an ad for the advertiser

20.  Why do we use clickTag in flash creative?
We use clickTag because it allows us to add our click tracking string to the final click through destination. Typically, clickTag is implemented in a button action like so
on (release) {
            getURL (_level0.clickTag, "_blank");
21.  Explain the following reporting metrics
Click Rate
The percentage of impressions that resulted in users clicking an ad.
Calculated as:
Click Rate = (Impressions/Clicks Recorded) * 100
Clicks Recorded
The number of times users have clicked ads in a campaign to date.
Effective CPM
The cost per thousand impressions.
Calculated as:
Total Cost [$] / (Delivered Impressions / 1000)
Impressions Delivered
The number of impressions that have been delivered to date.
Media Cost
The cost of all delivered impressions and clicks. The cost type and the cost entered against the placement are also factored in the calculation. This information is determined by the advertiser when pricing information is entered in the Trafficking module.
The media cost does not take into account run dates, but does take into account hybrid pricing.

22.   What is an invalid click?
Invalid click  is any click that is not generated by an actual human user. Causes of invalid clicks: - Spiders, robots, crawlers, and other automated agents: - Programs that download entire websites for offline use:  Link analyzers and code validators: This is a click fraud technique.
23.   Why do we have to send screen shot?? Explain
Once the ad is serving live on the website for a new campaign, we need to provide a proof of the same to advertiser. So agency will take a screenshot on website once the ad is showing and this will be shared with Advertiser as a proof.
  1. What a sales person in publisher end do?
Selling the ad inventory, checking the availability and booking the ad slot and preparing Insertion order.
  1. What are the basic element needed to traffic an ad
Trafficking instruction/IO, creative assets and Landing page URL
26.   What are various types of creative rotations?
Random, sequential, weighted, best performing etc

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