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Saturday, December 1, 2012

Beyond 2012: Why the World Won't End



Dec. 21, 2012, won't be the end of the world as we know, however, it will be another winter solstice.

Contrary to some of the common beliefs out there, the claims behind the end of the world quickly unravel when pinned down to the 2012 timeline.

Below, NASA Scientists answer questions on the following 2012 topics:
·         End of the World
·         'Prediction' Origins
·         Mayan Calendar
·         Total Blackout
·         Planetary Alignment
·         Nibiru/Planet X/Eris
·         Polar Shift
·         Meteor Strike
·         NASA Science
·         Solar Storms



› View larger
A 'Blue Marble' image of the Earth taken from the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA's Suomi NPP satellite. This composite image uses a number of swaths of the Earth's surface taken on January 4, 2012. Credit: NASA/NOAA/GSFC/Suomi NPP/VIIRS/Norman Kuring
Question (Q): Are there any threats to the Earth in 2012? Many Internet websites say the world will end in December 2012.
 Answer (A):The world will not end in 2012. Our planet has been getting along just fine for more than 4 billion years, and credible scientists worldwide know of no threat associated with 2012.


Q: What is the origin of the prediction that the world will end in 2012?
 A: The story started with claims that Nibiru, a supposed planet discovered by the Sumerians, is headed toward Earth. This catastrophe was initially predicted for May 2003, but when nothing happened the doomsday date was moved forward to December 2012 and linked to the end of one of the cycles in the ancient Mayan calendar at the winter solstice in 2012 -- hence the predicted doomsday date of December 21, 2012.


Q: Does the Mayan calendar end in December 2012?
 A: Just as the calendar you have on your kitchen wall does not cease to exist after December 31, the Mayan calendar does not cease to exist on December 21, 2012. This date is the end of the Mayan long-count period but then -- just as your calendar begins again on January 1 -- another long-count period begins for the Mayan calendar.


Q: Is NASA predicting a "total blackout" of Earth on Dec. 23 to Dec. 25?
 A: Absolutely not. Neither NASA nor any other scientific organization is predicting such a blackout. The false reports on this issue claim that some sort of "alignment of the Universe" will cause a blackout. There is no such alignment (see next question). Some versions of this rumor cite an emergency preparedness message from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden. This is simply a message encouraging people to be prepared for emergencies, recorded as part of a wider government preparedness campaign. It never mentions a blackout.
›Watch the Video


Q: Could planets align in a way that impacts Earth?
 A: There are no planetary alignments in the next few decades and even if these alignments were to occur, their effects on the Earth would be negligible. One major alignment occurred in 1962, for example, and two others happened during 1982 and 2000. Each December the Earth and sun align with the approximate center of the Milky Way Galaxy but that is an annual event of no consequence.
› More about alignment

"There apparently is a great deal of interest in celestial bodies, and their locations and trajectories at the end of the calendar year 2012. Now, I for one love a good book or movie as much as the next guy. But the stuff flying around through cyberspace, TV and the movies is not based on science. There is even a fake NASA news release out there..."
- Don Yeomans, NASA senior research scientist

Q: Is there a planet or brown dwarf called Nibiru or Planet X or Eris that is approaching the Earth and threatening our planet with widespread destruction?
 A: Nibiru and other stories about wayward planets are an Internet hoax. There is no factual basis for these claims. If Nibiru or Planet X were real and headed for an encounter with the Earth in 2012, astronomers would have been tracking it for at least the past decade, and it would be visible by now to the naked eye. Obviously, it does not exist. Eris is real, but it is a dwarf planet similar to Pluto that will remain in the outer solar system; the closest it can come to Earth is about 4 billion miles.


Q: What is the polar shift theory? Is it true that the Earth's crust does a 180-degree rotation around the core in a matter of days if not hours?
 A: A reversal in the rotation of Earth is impossible. There are slow movements of the continents (for example Antarctica was near the equator hundreds of millions of years ago), but that is irrelevant to claims of reversal of the rotational poles. However, many of the disaster websites pull a bait-and-switch to fool people. They claim a relationship between the rotation and the magnetic polarity of Earth, which does change irregularly, with a magnetic reversal taking place every 400,000 years on average. As far as we know, such a magnetic reversal doesn’t cause any harm to life on Earth. Scientists believe a magnetic reversal is very unlikely to happen in the next few millennia.
› More about polar shift


Q: Is the Earth in danger of being hit by a meteor in 2012?
 A: The Earth has always been subject to impacts by comets and asteroids, although big hits are very rare. The last big impact was 65 million years ago, and that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Today NASA astronomers are carrying out a survey called the Spaceguard Survey to find any large near-Earth asteroids long before they hit. We have already determined that there are no threatening asteroids as large as the one that killed the dinosaurs. All this work is done openly with the discoveries posted every day on the NASA Near-Earth Object Program Office website, so you can see for yourself that nothing is predicted to hit in 2012.


Q: How do NASA scientists feel about claims of the world ending in 2012?
 A: For any claims of disaster or dramatic changes in 2012, where is the science? Where is the evidence? There is none, and for all the fictional assertions, whether they are made in books, movies, documentaries or over the Internet, we cannot change that simple fact. There is no credible evidence for any of the assertions made in support of unusual events taking place in December 2012.
› Why you need not fear a supernova
› About super volcanoes


Q: Is there a danger from giant solar storms predicted for 2012?
 A: Solar activity has a regular cycle, with peaks approximately every 11 years. Near these activity peaks, solar flares can cause some interruption of satellite communications, although engineers are learning how to build electronics that are protected against most solar storms. But there is no special risk associated with 2012. The next solar maximum will occur in the 2012-2014 time frame and is predicted to be an average solar cycle, no different than previous cycles throughout history.
› Video: Solar Storms
› More about solar storms


Friday, November 30, 2012

Top 10 Most Dangerous Dog Breeds

22 reported dog bite related human fatalities in the United States in 2004. 2005 - 29 human fatalities. 2006 - 26. In 2007, there were 33 human fatalities. 45% of the attacks occurred to adults over the age of 18, and 55% occurred to ages below. Pit bull type dogs were responsible for 67% of fatalities, the next closest breed was the rottweiler at 12%. But all dog breeds are potentially dangerous. In 2000, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that 25 breeds of dogs were involved in 238 fatal dog bites from 1979-1998. Here it is the compiled list of the most dangerous dog breeds:
1. Pit Bulls (Weight: 55-65 lbs.)
Pit BullsPit bull is one of the most brave and dauntless dogs that usually takes on any opponent. Therefore they take part in dog fighting. It is common knowledge that this dog breed can even mangle the human to death as pit bull locks its jaws onto the booty until it is dead.

2. Rottweilers (Weight: 100-130 lbs.)
RottweilersDue to their intense territorial instinct these dogs are very aggressive. Rottweilers are commonly used as guard dogs.

3. German Shepherds (Weight: 70-100 lbs.)
German ShepherdsThis breed of dogs is known as a smart and vigilant one. As German Shepherds proved to be confident and fearless local authorities such as the police K-9 unit use German Shepherds as a police dog.

4. Huskies (Weight: 44-66 lbs.)
HuskiesDespite of their energy and intelligence this breed is not regarded a good guard dog. It is caused by its kind temperament and personality characteristics. However it should be marked that between 1979 and 1997 fifteen fatal cases were caused by huskies.

5. Alaskan Malamutes (Weight: 75-100 lbs.)
Alaskan MalamutesThis breed requires a lot of exercises to be happy as being bored they become disobedient. On the whole their characteristic features are energy and activity.

6. Doberman Pinschers (Weight: 65-90 lbs.)
Doberman PinschersDoberman Pinschers are famed by such features as alertness, intelligence and loyalty. Therefore they are considered to be one of the best guard dog breeds. The dog usually attacks only in case its family is in danger or when being provoked.

7. Chow Chow (Weight: 50-70 lbs.)
Chow ChowThe Chow Chow seems to be distant and independent, however they require staunch attention. If badly bred they can become aggressive dogs.

8. Presa Canario ( Weight: 80-115 lbs.)
Presa CanarioIt is well known that an attack of this guard dog can bring to the death any prey. One of the main features of this dog is fearlessness, huge power and man-stopping ability.

9. Boxer (Weight: 50-70 lbs.)
BoxerThese dogs are intelligent, frisky and full of energy. It is not so easy to train them as they are self-willed breed. In addition, boxers are not typically aggressive by nature.

10. Dalmatian (Weight: 40-70 lbs.)
DalmatianThis breed is distinguished by intelligence and perfect memory, independence and survival instincts. Sometimes Dalmatians can be aggressive towards people.

Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Some common questions about Ad Operations



Ad Operations 

1.       What are the various modes in online advertising?
Advertising using internet technology (WWW)
Display advertising –Static, RICHMEDIA & Mobile/PDA
Email advertising refers to advertising displayed in an email environment. It includes: Display, text, opt-in Search/Keyword marketing

2.       Define Advertising and List Benefits of advertising?
Advertising is a paid form of communication delivered to persuade or influence an audience about a product or service.
Increase the brand awareness and Direct response (direct behavior or interaction which is specific and quantifiable. )
 Increase Sales and ROI
 Awareness of products
 To promote product/service
 Build a good Rapport with consumer

4.       What is IAB - Internet Advertising bureau? Explain the core functionality of IAB
The IAB educates marketers, agencies, media companies and the wider business community about the value of interactive advertising. Working with its member companies, the IAB evaluates and recommends standards and practices and fields critical research on interactive advertising.
Ad Standards, Creative Standards, Contracts, Privacy Measurement guide etc

5.       What is Display Advertising?
Display advertising refers to web advertising displaying the message using graphical information beyond text.  Includes image, rich media, floating, transitional, etc.

6.       Various creative formats?
Static Image – Gif, Jpeg
Rich – Flash – swf
RichMedia – Floating, Expandable, transitional, video, Motif

7.       What is an online campaign? Types of campaigns?
Online campaign is advertising program published using internet
a.       Branding (awareness and message reinforcement)
b.      Direct response (ROI/acquisition-focused)

9.       What are the various types are targeting in online adverting?
Content – Various sections on the website pages
Geographical – Country, State, city, pin code, zip code etc
 Demographic
Time and Date
psychographic/behavioral
Computer System 
Internet Related

10.   What is RFI>RFP>IO (request for info/proposal, insertion order)? Explain
Request for proposal. Advertiser sends RFP to Publisher by requesting to run an ad

11.   What is forecasting?
A process of investigating how many impressions are available for a future date on a specific targeting area of a website.

12.   Define Impression and click ?
Impression: one exposure to one user of a display or text ad
Click: One mouse click on the ad displayed.

13.   Types of cost structure and explain
CPM (cost per thousand impressions)
CPC/CPA (cost per click of acquisition/conversion)
Flat rate (special sponsorships such as fixed placements) 

14.   Sony has booked an ad slot of 728x90 @ 4 CPM and 300x250 @ 2CPC on Yahoo. If in 1 month yahoo records 400,000 impressions on 728x90 and 2000 clicks, then what is the total cost? Who should pay?
Cost 728x90 = 400000x4/1000 = 1600
Cost 300x250 = 2000x2 = 4000
Total cost = 5600

15.   Explain the following terminologies used in online advertising industry

a)      BUYERS - Buyers are companies that buy ad space to advertise on it. Direct advertisers, Agencies and small business.
b)      Agency - Agencies are companies that handle the advertising process on behalf of the advertiser.
c)       CTR: The click rate is the percentage of ad views that resulted in clickthroughs
CTR – Click Through Rate = (Click/impression) 100
d)      Sellers - Sellers are companies that Sell ad space to advertise on it. Portals, Ad Networks, Content sites and Social networks
e)      Publisher - Web-publishers will monetize their web content via advertisements by creating ad spaces.
f)       Ad Network - An ad network acts as an agency for the publisher. Ad networks do not own the content, and they are responsible only for selling ad inventory on behalf of the publishers.
g)      Remnant - Selling ad space that a publisher cannot sell. They try to buy ad space at low prices and sell it at a higher price by packaging it through targeting capabilities and reach
h)      AD Exchange - Virtual marketplaces bring together online advertising buyers and sellers. Mainly focused on: remnant (unsold) inventory and inventory from publishers with no sales structure (long tail)
i)        Media Planning: Managing the process of researching media and planning the campaign.
j)        Media Buying: Managing the process of buying the media and price negotiation. Usually buyers use an RFP process to request proposals from the publishers that satisfy the goal of the buyer.

16.   What is an Insertion order?
 An insertion order is a formal, printed order to run an ad campaign. Typically, the insertion order identifies the campaign name, the Web site receiving the order and the planner or buyer giving the order, the individual ads to be run (or who will provide them), the ad sizes, the campaign beginning and end dates, the CPM, the total cost, discounts to be applied, and reporting requirements and possible penalties or stipulations relative to the failure to deliver the impressions.

17.   Who is a BUYER and explain?
Buyers are companies that buy ad space to advertise on it.
They might buy ad space to advertise their own product/services or those of others.
The buyers can be categorized in the following groups:
Direct marketers – Medium to large company
Agencies  - Companies that handle the advertising process on behalf of the advertiser. Function: planning, buying, creative design, PR, branding, etc.
Specialty: direct marketing, search, branding, etc.

18.   Who is a SELLER and explain?
Sellers are companies that Sell ad space to advertise on it.
Web-publishers will monetize their web content via advertisements by creating ad spaces
Managing the ad inventory available for sale and
forecasting.
Portals, Ad Networks, Content sites and Social networks

19.   What is an ADNETWORK?
An ad network acts as an agency for the publisher
  Ad networks do not own the content, and they are responsible only for selling ad inventory on behalf of the publishers.
  The key benefit of ad networks is the ability to aggregate supply and therefore lower buying cost.
  Remnant/arbitrage networks focus on selling ad space that a publisher cannot sell.
  They try to buy ad space at low prices and sell it at a higher price by packaging it through targeting capabilities and reach. They usually purchase in CPM



20.   Explain the complete steps involved in Buyer/Advertise side online ad serving process
Media Planning >Buying ad space on Publisher>Creative Generation > Trafficking >Reporting>Optimization >Invoicing
Media Planning: Managing the process of researching media and planning the campaign.
Media Buying: Managing the process of buying the media and price negotiation. Usually buyers use an RFP process to request proposals from the publishers that satisfy the goal of the buyer.
Creative Management: Managing the design process from the storyboards to the actual creative. Most of the time the design process is outsourced to creative agencies or freelancers.
Centralized Tracking: The buyer needs to have a centralized view of campaign data to see how the campaign is performing across the media they bought. One key requirement online (especially for direct marketers) is the ability to track the leads/sales and what activities led to it.
Media/Creative Optimization: The buyer needs to optimize the creatives to the right audience and make sure they stay “fresh” to avoid burnout effect (displaying the same creative over and over). They also need to make sure the media purchased delivers the expected results.
Accounting: The buyer needs to be able to pay the publisher based on the pricing models set forth in the purchase order and the delivered results.

21.   Explain the complete steps involved in Seller/Publisher side online ad serving process.
Proposal generation/IO >Inventory Management > Trafficking > Reporting>Optimization >Invoicing
Account management: Managing the relationship with the buyers
Proposal management: Managing RFPs and proposals during the sales process
Inventory management: Managing the ad inventory available for sale
Order/placement management: Managing the proper delivery of the orders/placements that are sold
Yield management: Maximizing ad revenue
Accounting: Managing invoices and payments

22.   What is Media Research and explain?
This is a part of Media Planning process where an agency will refer to the various research data to select the appropriate audience for adverting campaign. Geographic reports, Demographic data, Survery, research done by comsocre and other agency on the user data, Internet usage etc can be used .

23.   What is rate card?
An electronic document which highlights the information regarding the publisher site such as – cost structure, ad slot size available, creative specification to be used , contact info, policy etc. This will be sent along with Insertion order. This will be sent to agency/advertiser who are interested to run a campaign on the website.

24.   What are the various cost structure used in online industry and explain
CPM : CPM is "cost per thousand" ad impressions, an industry standard measure for selling ads on Web sites. This measure is taken from print advertising. The "M" has nothing to do with "mega" or million. It's taken from the Roman numeral for "thousand."CPC = Cost Per Click
CPC – Cost Per Click
CPD = Cost per Day
CPL = Cost per Lead
Flat Rate – Total cost is fixed.
Sponsorships/Bonus

25.   What is browser/proxy server caching? What is caching?

A:  Information, such as web pages, images, etc., are saved on a user’s computer or proxy server so that the information can be accessed more quickly. The information is accessed more quickly because the browser and/or proxy server need not re-contact the original source. This is a natural occurrence in the web and is responsible for making sure that web pages load as quickly as they do.
In an attempt to speed up user experience around the web, most browsers implement a technology called cache. This mechanism allows information, such as web pages, images, etc., to be saved on a user’s computer. Therefore, if the user calls for a previously requested web page, the browser will recall the information from the cache and not make another request from the site itself. Once the browser receives a DoubleClick ad image, it will store the image in the cache. Further calls for the ad image will be drawn from the cache – not from DoubleClick -- and an impression will not be counted. In order to defect the browser cache mechanism, Cache busting (aka Random Number Generation (RNG)) is implemented. 

26.   What is Random Number Generation (RNG)?

A:  RNG is the process of inserting a random number in HTML tags to defeat browser/proxy caching. Random numbers change every time the tags are requested and sent. To be sure, cache busting can be achieved via the inclusion of any random string; however, this string is most commonly a number.
Browser caching can be defeated by dynamically creating unique tags for each ad image served. This ensures that when a user navigates from page to page the ad image is not delivered from the browser’s cache, but rather a new image is delivered from the DoubleClick servers for each request. To accomplish this unique tagging, a different random number is added to the image tags that reference the ad image. Typically, when a browser sees another image call with the same name, it pulls the ad from cache. To defeat this, an ord= attribute is added to the HTML tag, and when implemented correctly, prevents the images from being pulled from the cache. Tags with different “ord=” values prevent this caching problem because the different value forces the browser to retrieve a new banner from the ad server. If not implemented correctly, though, browser caching will not be defeated.

27.  What will happen if I do not use RNG to defeat caching?

A:  Web pages, images, etc. will be served from the user’s computer or proxy server rather than from DoubleClick’s servers. This will result in the undercounting of impressions and will cause counting discrepancies. This is an issue that can negatively affect both the Advertiser/Client and the Publisher website.

28.  Conversion tracking and how do you track the same?
What happens after a viewer sees a banner and doesn’t click ? Are they coming back? Converting?
Process of tracking the information beyond click and impression like post click and post impression. This will be tracked on the landing page. We need to use 1x1 pixel calls on the each page of the landing URL (Advertiser website) where you want to track the conversion activities.
When a browser hits a page on the advertiser’s site that contains a conversion/spotlight tag, the browser initiates an “HTTP get request” for a 1x1 pixel to the ad serving tool. In the process of making this request to DoubleClick, a user’s browser passes back information in the tag including IP address, operating system, browser type, cookie ID and the URL of the tag itself.

29.  Postclick/post impression
post-click activity :An action performed by a user in a web page that contains Spotlight tags, where the visit is a result of having clicked on an ad.
post-impression activity
An action performed by a user in an advertiser’s web page that contains Spotlight tags, after having seen an ad for the advertiser

30.  Why do we use clickTag in flash creative?
We use clickTag because it allows us to add our click tracking string to the final click through destination. Typically, clickTag is implemented in a button action like so
on (release) {
            getURL (_level0.clickTag, "_blank");
}

31.  Explain the following reporting metrics
Field
Description
Click Rate
The percentage of impressions that resulted in users clicking an ad.
Calculated as:
Click Rate = (Impressions/Clicks Recorded) * 100
Clicks Recorded
The number of times users have clicked ads in a campaign to date.
Effective CPM
The cost per thousand impressions.
Calculated as:
Total Cost [$] / (Delivered Impressions / 1000)
Impressions Delivered
The number of impressions that have been delivered to date.
Media Cost
The cost of all delivered impressions and clicks. The cost type and the cost entered against the placement are also factored in the calculation. This information is determined by the advertiser when pricing information is entered in the Trafficking module.
The media cost does not take into account run dates, but does take into account hybrid pricing.

32.   What is an invalid click?
Invalid click  is any click that is not generated by an actual human user. Causes of invalid clicks: - Spiders, robots, crawlers, and other automated agents: - Programs that download entire websites for offline use:  Link analyzers and code validators: This is a click fraud technique.
33.   Why do we have to send screen shot?? Explain
Once the ad is serving live on the website for a new campaign, we need to provide a proof of the same to advertiser. So agency will take a screenshot on website once the ad is showing and this will be shared with Advertiser as a proof 

4.  What a sales person in publisher end do?
Selling the ad inventory, checking the availability and booking the ad slot and preparing Insertion order.

35.  What are the basic element needed to traffic an ad
Trafficking instruction/IO, creative assets and Landing page URL

36.  What are various types of creative rotations?
Random, sequential, weighted, best performing etc

37.  Explain what is CPM and CPC and how it differs in terms of cost calculations?
CPM and CPC are units or pricing models in an ad serving system.
CPM:- Cost per thousand impressions.
CPC:- Cost per Click

38.  Explain below the creative rotation?
Random: All of the creative in the ad are served in random order. This is the default value.
Sequential: All of the creative in the ad are served to a user in the order of the assignments.
Example (1,2,3…etc)
Weighted: You apply a percentage to each creative (for a total of 100 percent).Each creative is served the specified percentage of the time.
Best performing: Images are set to deliver in random order until DFP can bias deliver to the best performing creative with the highest click rate. The best performing creative is served 75 percent of the time, the other creative share the remaining 25 percent of the time.

39.  What is Click Command?
Click ads are used to track text links, emails or other elements hard coded on a website.  Site traffickers may want to insert a click command in their site if they do not want to deliver creatives from a 3rd party ad server.  

40.  What is caching ?
Caching: Caching is a technique used to increase performance on
the Internet. Web browsers and proxy servers save copies of web
page elements (page source code, images, and so on) to local
memory caches so that they do not have to retrieve the same
material on subsequent requests.

41.  What is under delivery?
Under Delivery: Delivery of less impressions, visitors, or conversions than contracted for a specified period of time.

42.  What are Discrepancies?
Difference in counts (impression, click, Click to Landing) across two different ad servers (Publisher and Advertiser)
Cause a great amount of pain for our customers – they have to be resolved, campaign by campaign, for billing

43.  What causes discrepancies?
Difference of counting methodologies and filtration procedures
Trafficking Errors
Number of redirects
User hits back button, closes window, etc
Popup blocking, ad blocking
44.  What are troubleshooting steps for discrepancy identification?

Get all the reports
Review the trafficking
Understand the counting method used
Testing with sample
Communicate
There will be no exact solution

45.  What is optimization?
Optimization techniques are used to Meet and exceed established goals for all CPA, CPM and CPC campaigns.
Under delivery and over delivery reports will used along with other guidelines, we can suggest the optimization required to meet the goal. 

46.  What is targeting?
The process of delivering an advertiser's ad to the user through either content matching, profiling, or filtering.
Improve response by delivering messages to consumers who are most likely to respond.
The control of the distribution of ad creative to only those web sites or those users that fit within the particular targeting parameters.
Targeting has the potential to dramatically improve the advertiser's ROI
The process of specifying criteria so that an appropriate ad is served to a user.

47.  Explain 4 various types of targeting?

Geographic targeting - It is used to target users in specific geographic locations. E.g.: Country, State/Region, Area Code and DMA.

Demographic Targeting - Based on the demographic data – age, sex, salary etc 

Internet-related targeting- It is used to target users who are accessing the web in specific ways. E.g. IE 7,Mozilla, Firefox etc

Computer system targeting - It is used to target users who are accessing the web with specific computer technologies. E.g. Windows 95

Time and day targeting - It is used to choose the times of day and days of the week at which ads are served to users.

Contextual/content targeting - It is used to serve ads to users based on the content they view in your website. You target an ad to a specific section of your website based on the content contained in that section. For example, you can specify that ads for hotels can be served only to the travel section of your website.You can target to content by using DART sites, zones, and content categories.

Key-value and keyword targeting - It is a feature that is used to serve ads to users based on the following: text that a user enters into a search engine (for example, a user who is searching for computers)

48.  What is boomerang Targeting?

It is an enhanced targeting feature that enables you to target ads to anonymous users who perform specific actions, such as view web pages or ads on multiple occasions, make frequent purchases, or provide membership data.

49.  Behavioral Targeting

         Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual's web-browsing behavior, such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made, to select which advertisements to display to that individual. 

50.  What is a cookie ?
 In computing, a cookie (also browser cookie, computer cookie, tracking cookie, web cookie, internet cookie, and HTTP cookie) is a small string of text stored on a user's computer by a web browser. A cookie consists of one or more name-value pairs containing bits of information such as user preferences, shopping cart contents, the identifier for a server-based session, or other data used by websites.
A cookie can be used for authenticating, session tracking (state maintenance), and maintaining specific information about users, such as site preferences or the contents of their electronic shopping carts.

51.  Advantage and Disadvantage of Targetting?
Advantage:
  1. Deliver your ad to the right audience, and therefore increasing brand awareness
  2. Eliminates wastage of impressions
  3. Increased conversion rate.
  4. High ROI
  5. Deliver an ad to the right user at the right time
Disadvantage:
  1. Low reach
  2. Under delivery
52.   What is Random Number Generation (RNG)? 

RNG is the process of inserting a random number in HTML tags to defeat browser/proxy caching. Random numbers change every time the tags are requested and sent. To be sure, cache busting can be achieved via the inclusion of any random string, however, this string is most commonly a number.

53.  What is browser/proxy server caching?
Information, such as web pages, images, etc., are saved on a user’s computer or proxy server so that the information can be accessed more quickly. The information is accessed more quickly because the browser and/or proxy server need not re-contact the original source. This is a natural occurrence in the web and is responsible for making sure that web pages load as quickly as they do.

54.  What will happen if you do not use RNG to defeat caching?
Web pages, images, etc. will be served from the user’s computer or proxy server rather than from DoubleClick’s servers. This will result in the undercounting of impressions and will cause counting discrepancies. This is an issue that can negatively affect both the Advertiser/Client and the Publisher website.

55.  Briefly explain Ad Networks and any two advantages of ad networks?
They are collection of sites( either partnered, own or both)
Advantages:
The lower CPM connection: Publishers still have substantial unsold inventory which is sold to adnetworks at lower price than the normal price.
Better targeting, higher CPMs:The report suggests that better ad network targeting and inventory management will generate higher CPMs.
 
57.  Define Inventory?
Inventory is the total number of ad views that a Web site has to sell over a given period of time 

58.  What is Yield Management?
Maximizing ad revenue.  Making sure that the publishers are making the most money possible while fulfilling all ad delivery priorities.

59.  Explain Inventory Management Process
Sales team process
Managing the ad inventory available for sale.  Responding to proposals and letting the sales team what’s available for sale. Also forecasting the available inventory on the specific website for future dates.

60.  Explain Over delivery and Under delivery. What are the optimization you will do for each case ?
Over Delivery – If the impression delivered by the ad server is exceeding the per day goal of the overall inventory booked. Campaign is speeding. Optimization – To control the delivery we can set frequency cap, hard stop, add targeting,  remove sites/zone etc and apply key-value, extended the rundates etc
Under Delivery - If the impression delivered by the ad server is below the per day goal of the overall inventory booked. Camping is running slow. Optimization – To increase the ad delivery – we can ad more sites/zones, swap the creative, remove targeting, remove frequency capping.

61.  Sony wants to advertise on Digital camera. What are some of the benefits and risks running this ad campaign on all available sites in the world?

Benefits: - You can reach to large number of audience across the world. Branding and awareness. Reach to various kinds of people with various interests
MORE IMPRESSIONS, CLICKS and CTR
Risk: Cost of running the campaign is more. Product is not targeting to appropriate audience. Less rate of conversion. Wastage of impressions and click cost. We need to target to specific users to get more ROI

62.  Maruthi wants to run an ad campaign for its new SWIFT car. Suggest some website to the advertiser so that they can get maximum reach and ROI. Also explain why you are selecting those sites.
Auto related site – Reach to concentrated audience so that conversion rate is more.
Example :
CARS.com (Site dedicated to cars and accessories – Used, New etc) – Carwale.com, cardomain, Autosite.com,
Yahoo/MSN – Popular site in the world and wide range of audience.

63.  List 4 Publisher adserving tools?
DFP – DART For Publisher (DoubleClick)
Accipiter
Yield Manger
YAHOO APT
HELIOUS
OAS
AD BUILDER
AD MODUS
Value Click
64.  List 4 3rd part Advertiser adserving tools?
DFA
MediaPlex
ATLAS
ZEDO

65.  Define the attribute of a FLASH creative
Button action
on (release) {                                            
            getURL (_level0.clickTag, "_blank");                      
            }
Audio, Duration, Animation, Number of loops and Version

66.  What is the use of backup gif while trafficking a Flash creative?
A.      Client can run both flash and gif together and get more impressions
B.      If the user computer does not have flash plug-in or version then gif creative will be served
C.      Based on the targeting criteria either gif and flash can be served
D.      None of the above

67.  List at least 6 creative specification
KB Size, Pixel size, button action, version, loops, Audio, Rotation, Animation, duration etc
 
69.  List few types of creative?
Gif/Jpeg
 Flash
 RichMedia
 Expandable
 Floating
 Popup and Popunder
 Click commands/Text ads
 Pixel Ads

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